Tannins containing Plants & their Medicinal Applications:

black-tea-tannins

  • Tannins (commonly referred to as tannic acid) are water-soluble polyphenols that are present in many plant foods.
  • They have been reported to be responsible for decreases in feed intake, growth rate, feed efficiency, net metabolizable energy, and protein digestibility in experimental animals.
  • Therefore, foods rich in tannins are considered to be of low nutritional value. However, recent findings indicate that the major effect of tannins was not due to their inhibition on food consumption or digestion but rather the decreased efficiency in converting the absorbed nutrients to new body substances.
Herb (Botanical Name/Pinyin) Taste, Nature  

Applications

 

Acacia catechu gall bitter, astringent Neutral cough, red and white dysentery; topically for skin ulceration
Cedrela sinensis root bark 

(ercha)[catechugall],(chungenbaipi)

bitter,astringent Hematochezia, morbid leucorrhea, functional bleeding
Punica granatum rind(shiliupi)

[pomegranate]

astringent chronic diarrhea and dysentery, hematochezia, rectal prolapse, morbid leucorrhea
Quercus acutissima fruit
(xiangshi)
[acorn]
astringent mildly warm diarrhea, rectal prolapse, hemorrhoidal bleeding
Quercus infectoria gall
(moshizi)
[oak gallnut]
bitter, Hyperhidrosis, oral ulceration, leucorrhea, topically for skin lesions
Rhus semialata gall
(wubeizi)
[sumac gallnut]
sour, salty Cold cough, rectal prolapse, spontaneous sweating, night sweating, epistasis
Rosa laevigata fruit
(jinyingzi)
[rosehips]
sour, astringent Neutral enuresis, frequent urination, morbid leucorrhea, persistent diarrhea
Terminalia chebula fruit
(hezi)
[chebulic myrobalan]
bitter, sour Neutral chronic diarrhea and dysentery, rectal prolapse, aphonia due to longstanding cough, night sweating

10 Ways To Live Longer

Want to Live Longer?

As we all know, “Death keeps no calendar” but the tragedy is directly proportional to the lifestyle. One should adopt certain ways in order to have a quality lifestyle which will increase the chances of living longer. Health is wealth, not investing your wealth on something that ensures good return would label us as “ignoramus”.

There are a number of ways for keeping yourself on the track of better lifestyle proceeding to a long and evergreen life, but here 10 major ways are being discussed. Failure to these will result in loss either in form of disease or may be death.

  1. Regular Exercise:

I am not talking about exercise but I am focusing on regular exercise. Exercise keeps your body well-balanced and perfect. Even walking is a form of simple exercise in which your body is in coordination mode.

o-EMPLOYEE-EXERCISE-facebook
Exercise keeps you healthy and stress-free.
  1. Well Balanced Diet:

Limit yourself to a normal healthy and well balanced diet. Well balanced means you are fulfilling the demands/requirements of your body in form of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins etc. But you should monitor your dietary requirements according to your age. For example, you would likely restrict yourself from carbohydrates and fats to reduce the risks associated with these like Diabetes and Cholesterol problems at the age of 50 or >. Fruits and green vegetables (fresh) as well as nuts (having anti-ageing property) should be given priority.

banner_Balanced_diet

  1. Proper Sleep:

Proper sleep correlates the sleeping time and duration. As human body is just like a machine and it can’t bear tense conditions and burden so, needs rest for effective functioning. One should sleep at least 8-10 hours/day. Avoid using sleep pills or other ways that will ultimately affects your health.

proper-sleep

  1. Drink plenty of water:

Water is the major component of human body as it contains approx. 65-70% water. Like machine needing oil as lubricant, so as water serves for the human body, this tunes it up. Approx. 4 liters of water is needed for an adult to meet the body requirement.

Drink-Plenty-of-Water-1

  1. Avoid Smoking:

Smoking is the hub of diseases. And the key to health is to avoid your body from these. As everybody knows that “smoking kills” then why do you desire to live longer? Isn’t the phrase itself says it all?

STOP-Smoking
Avoid smoking because “Smoking Kills”
  1. Regular Checkups:

Visit your doctor regularly for routine checkup. Checkup or visiting to a doctor is not confined to a disease-when symptoms appear you’ll go to the doctor. Regular monitor your body through regular clinical visits will keep you up-to-dated with your body condition.

stockton_blog_checkup_620x350

  1. Avoid drinking alcohol:

Alcohol makes you more prone to diseases. As it makes your immune system weaker with the time hence, your body is unable to trigger immune responses.

DYCT9H_3155558b

  1. Avoid Stress:

Stress makes your body weaker. This will make you a better candidate to get sick as your immune system is being affected with stress and anxiety. Keep yourself cool and calm. Try to go out and relieve your stress by taking some fresh air or you may pass your time with close friend to relieve yourself.

                            stress_ball

  1. Get busy:

Keep yourself busy in doing things like gardening, walking, workout, sports or cleaning etc. Sitting all day long is just bad for health. It’s a fact that you must keep yourself physically active as you grow older so that your body functions normally.

36180_437082193411_744163411_5365631_5505735_n

  1. Stay happy and positive:

According to a 2014 study, “Finding a purpose in your life will help you live longer.” Try to set your own goals and struggle hard to achieve them, ultimately will make you happier.

10888719_927538960592236_1121508578446841486_n

BE HAPPY, BE HEALTY!!

I personally recommend 27 Habits”

For Females: “Check this”

Abid Ali @abidaliphm

Doctor of Pharmacy

Poison antidotes and dosing

Poison Antidote Dose
Iron salt Deferroxamine 15mg/kg/hr
Lead Calcium EDTA 50-75mg/kg/day IM/IV in divided doses for a max. of 5 days
Arsenic, gold and mercury BAL (dimercapol) 3-5mg/kg/4 hourly IM for 2 days followed by 2.5-3mg/kg/6hourly for a week (7 days)
Narcotic drug like morphine Naloxane 1-2mg IM/IV/SC
Barbiturates Coramine IV at dose 5ml increased to 10ml in 15 min followed by 20ml every 30 min till reflexes return
Paracetamol Acetyl cysteine Loading dose 140mg/kg. then 70mg/kg/4 hourly until serum level is 0
Cardiotonic drugs like tricyclic antidepressants quinidine etc. Sodium bicarbonate 1-2mg/kg. care should be taken as antidote may produce heart failure
Physostigmine Atropine 1-2mg every 10-15 min till the symptoms disappear
Organophosphorus compounds like insecticides Atropine followed by parlidoxime Atropine inj. every 20-30 min till the symptoms disappear, followed by 1g IV of parlidoxime every 3-4 hourly

 

Abid Ali @abidaliphm

Doctor of Pharmacy

Percentage stated content of Paracetamol tablet

How to calculate the percentage stated content of sample Paracetamol tablet?

Assay;

  1. 20 tablets of Paracetamol (500mg) taken and crushed into powdered form.
  2. Tablet powder containing 0 .61g is shaken with 300ml of .05M acetic acid.
  3. The extract is then made up to 500ml with 0.05M acetic acid.
  4. The absorbance of the diluted extract is measured at 271nm.
  5. The A (1%, 1cm) value at 257 is 715.

Supposed calculation:

Weight of 20 tablets    = 11.49g

Powder taken (equivalent) = 11.49/20 = 0.57

Absorbance                    =1.462

Expected Content in tablet powder taken:

= wt. of powder taken/wt. of 20 tab x stated content x No. of tablets.

=0.57/11.49 x 500 x 20

=496.08mg

Dilution factor = 50

Calculated Content in tablet powder taken:

Concentration in diluted tablet extract = A/A1%, 1cm

                                    =1.462/715 =0.002g/100ml =2.04mg/100ml

Concentration in original tablet extracts = 2.04 x D.F =2.04 x 50 =102mg/100ml

Volume of original extract    = 500ml

So, amount in original extract= 102 x 5= 510mg

Percentage of stated content = Calculated/Expected x 100  

=510/496.08 x 100 =102%

So, the percentage stated content of sample Paracetamol tablet is 102%

 

Abid Ali @abidaliphm

Doctor of Pharmacy

Poison and its Classification

Poison:

Poison is toxic substance that causes disturbances in organisms, usually by a chemical reaction or other activity at molecular level when sufficient amount is being absorbed by the organism.

Classification of poisons:

  1. On the basis of origin:

Poison may be:

  • Synthetic poison: Synthetic source may include various types of chemicals.
  • Natural poison: Natural poison may be of vegetable, animal or mineral origin and 
  1. On the basis of mechanism of action:

Poisons may be of following types;

1. Irritants: 

They may be inorganic, organic or mechanical irritants.

  • Inorganic irritants/substances: 

They are either metallic or nonmetallic.

Nonmetallic irritant:

Phosphorus, chloride, iodine, bromine are examples

Metallic poisons:

Copper, lead, mercury etc. are examples.

  • Organic poisons:

They are either of:

  • Animal origin: like venom of snake, scorpion, and insects etc.
  • Plant origin: like ergot, aloe, capsicum, and castor seed etc.
  • Mechanical irritant poison:

Powdered glass and diamond may sometime be used as mechanical irritant poison.

2. Corrosive poison: 

Strong acids and bases are the examples of these types of poison. They destroy the organs and tissues internally as well as externally.

Examples: Hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide etc. may act as poison.

3. Neurotic poison:

They as the name indicates act on the nervous system (central or peripheral) and cause toxic effects.

Examples: Sedative, hypnotics, cocaine, nuxvomica and curare

4. Cardiac poisons:

Digitalis, stropanthus, and aconite are the examples.

5. Respiratory depressants:

Poisonous gases like carbon mono oxide (CO) and coal gas are the examples of respiratory depressant poisons. The patient dies due to the poor supply of oxygen.

6. Miscellaneous poisons: 

Drugs like analgesics, antipyretics, antihistamines, and antidepressants may produce toxicity when consumed in higher doses and finally results in patient’s death.

 

Abid Ali @abidaliphm

Doctor of Pharmacy

Pharmacy Program

1ST Professional Year

Semester I

Pharmaceutical Chemistry I (Organic Chemistry I)

Pharmaceutical Biochemistry I

Pharmaceutics I (Physical Pharmacy I)

Physiology & Histology I

Anatomy

Mathematics

 

Semester II

Pharmaceutical Chemistry II (Organic Chemistry II)

Pharmaceutical Biochemistry II

Pharmaceutics II (Physical Pharmacy II)

Physiology & Histology II

Biostatistics

 

2nd Professional Year

Semester III

Pakistan studies

Pharmaceutics III (Pharmaceutical Preparations I)

Pharmacognosy I

Pharmacology & Therapeutics I

Pharmaceutical Microbiology I

Semester IV

Islamiyat (Comp.)

Pharmaceutics IV (Pharmaceutical Preparations II)

Pharmacognosy II

Pharmacology & Therapeutics II

Pharmaceutical Microbiology II

 

3rd Professional Year

Semester V

Pathology

Pharmacology & Therapeutics III (Systemic Pharmacology I)

Pharmacognosy III

Pharmaceutical Chemistry III (Instrumentation I)

Pharmaceutics V (Dispensing Pharmacy)

 

Semester VI

Computer & its Applications in Pharmacy

Pharmacology & Therapeutics IV (Systemic Pharmacology II)

Pharmacognosy IV

Pharmaceutical Chemistry IV (Instrumentation II)

Pharmaceutics VI (Community Pharmacy)

 

4th Professional Year

 

Semester VII

Pharmaceutics VII (Hospital Pharmacy I)

Pharmaceutics VIII (Clinical Pharmacy I)

Pharmaceutics IX (Industrial Pharmacy I)

Pharmaceutics X (Biopharmaceutics I)

Pharmaceutics XI (Pharmaceutical Quality Management I)

 

Semester VIII

Pharmaceutics XII (Hospital Pharmacy II)

Pharmaceutics XIII (Clinical Pharmacy II)

Pharmaceutics XIV (Industrial Pharmacy II)

Pharmaceutics XV (Biopharmaceutics II)

Pharmaceutics XVI (Pharmaceutical Quality Management II)

 

5th Professional Year

 

Semester IX

Pharmaceutical Chemistry V (Medicinal Chemistry I)

Pharmaceutics XVII (Clinical Pharmacy III)

Pharmaceutics XVIII (Pharmaceutical Technology I)

Pharmaceutics XIX (Forensic Pharmacy I)

Pharmaceutics XX (Pharmaceutical Management & Marketing I)

 

Semester X

Pharmaceutical Chemistry VI (Medicinal Chemistry II)

Pharmaceutics XXI (Clinical Pharmacy IV)

Pharmaceutics XXII (Pharmaceutical Technology II)

Pharmaceutics XXIII (Forensic Pharmacy II)

Pharmaceutics XXIV (Pharmaceutical Management & Marketing II)

Strategies for dispensing during off-hrs.

MultiplePharmacyOwnership

When pharmacy services are not available 24 hours, then various strategies are being followed. PTC or equivalent committee existing at hospital makes policies and procedures. It allows and specifies the personnel having approach to pharmacy, list of drugs etc.

The following strategies are being used worldwide:

Use of Nursing supervisors:

It’s the most widely used strategy which allows the nursing supervisor to enter the pharmacy but their services are limited. Though this practice is very dangerous and illegal but a correlation exists between the nurse while making a selection of medicines from drug cabinet (at ward) and selection of the same item from pharmacy. Nurses serving in this category should be limited/restricted to dispensing, from selection of pre-labeled and pre-packed items and especially from compounding a mixture etc.

Emergency boxes and night drug cabinets:

They are installed to provide medications during off-hrs and should be large enough, ready for use, installed at easy accessible place known to all ward personnel and sufficient compact for facilitating handling items.

Use of physician:

In such case, a physician is allowed to enter the pharmacy and may obtain (any) special medication which is not provided through the floor stock, emergency boxes and night drug cabinets. The danger here, is less as compared to the first case, however a physician might waste sufficient time in searching for the desired product.

Pharmacist on-call basis:

In this case, pharmacist services could be available on on-call basis. Pharmacist can be reached whenever needed, however this type of service should be encouraged by extra pay plans or bonus. A rotational plan of on-call will reduce burden on a single individual.

Purchase service:

Such service could be available if a contract is signed with a local community pharmacy for off-hrs and vacations. This is a safe method and is also legal and aims to safeguards health needs on round-the-clock basis. However, only the retail pharmacy with sufficient staff, inventory and delivery services should be contracted.

Automated dispensing devices/machines:

This is an innovative facility to dispense drugs during off-hrs.

Tele-pharmacy:

A modern way is tele-pharmacy which provides all type of pharmacy services, even clinical services when pharmacist is not available at floor. In such case pharmacist or organization providing the service is contacted via online, internet, or videoconferencing.

Abid Ali @abidaliphm

Doctor of Pharmacy

Dispensing at Outpatient Pharmacy

           Dispensing_copy-300x225

Prescription that is received at the outpatient pharmacy will generally include employees, private patients (where permitted by a state board of registration in pharmacy), indigent (poor) patients, non-indigent patients and patients being discharged from the hospital, depending upon the location and type of hospital.

Depending upon the type of patient and type hospital, medicines may be supplied either free of cost or on cash payment.

  • Free medicine cases get their medicines directly from the pharmacy.
  • Payment cases pay the cash first (at cash counter) and upon the production of the receipt plus the prescription, handled to the pharmacist in pharmacy and receive medicine.

Dispensing Pattern:

Dispensing pattern involved in providing outpatients and those being discharged with “take home drugs” is identical with that carried out by community pharmacy. In both instances, a physician writes a prescription and the patient or his/her attendant takes it to the pharmacy where the pharmacist compounds it. If there is to be waiting period, the pharmacist makes the prescription call check which identifies the patient numerically  and the finished prescription.

Once the pharmacist has the prescription and label are numbered with the help of numbering machine; the directions and other pertinent information required are placed on the label; ancillary label are affixed; then the proper medication is placed in the container; a check for accuracy is conducted and finally the prepared prescription is wrapped and at the end, dispensed.

Internal Audit:

For this purposes hospital prescription may be separated into outpatient and inpatient discharges and thus may utilize two types of different colored blanks.

Duplicate copy of the prescription or small token is kept by the pharmacist. Then, the retained prescription or token after accounts were written and the pharmacist files it for drugs mentioned in prescription along with patient’s registration number and date.

Abid Ali @abidaliphm

Doctor of Pharmacy

General Medication Errors

Medication error may be related to error/deficiency in any one or combination of the followings:

  • Professional practice                        
  • Health care products
  • Procedures/ policies
  • System

five rights medication 2

In addition to these mentioned causes the medication error may result from physiological or social factors/causes.

Physiological causes of medication error:

Each Patient shows unique response to medication which highlights the importance of medication safety. Every person is genetically unique i.e. not same, and the speed at which the body can processes medications may vary tremendously from patient to patient.

For example, a patient may lack an enzyme that helps in removing or eliminating medication from the body, thus may leading to serious harm or even death from an error. Similarly a patient’s kidney functioning is also a physiological cause of medication error.

Social causes of medication error:

Such type of medication errors include failure to follow medication therapy instructions because of cost, noncompliance, or a misunderstanding of instructions (language or cultural barriers).

Patient can also contribute to medication error by:

  • Forgetting to take a dose or doses
  • Taking too many dose
  • Dosing at wrong time
  • Not getting a prescription filled or refilled in timely manner
  • Not following direction on dose administration
  • Terminating the drug regimen too soon

In any event discussed, all of these social circumstances create the potential for medication error.

Abid Ali @abidaliphm

Doctor of Pharmacy